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Male factor contributes equally as female factor. Hence evaluation of male partner is very important.

Normal Semen Analysis (WHO 2010)-

  • Normal Concentration – 15 million per ml / 39 million per ejaculate
  • Normal motility – 40% (Rapidly progressing – 32%)
  • Normal Volume – 2 ml
  • Normal morphology – 4 %



  • Oligospermia – Reduced count of sperms
  • Teratospermia – Abnormal morphology (<4% of normal sperms) – structure of sperms is defective. Problem can be at the level of head, neck or tail of the sperm.
  • Asthenospermia – Abnormal motility (movement) of sperms.
  • Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OATS) – Problem at all levels of sperms. ICSI is indicated in these cases.
  • Azoospermia – No sperms in the semen.
  • Cryptozoospermia – No sperms in the semen but found after centrifugation of semen in lab.
  • Hypospermia – Decreased volume of the semen.


  • Causes of Azoospermia (absent sperms in semen) – 
    • Testicular failure – Testes are not able to produce sperms. FSH hormone will be high in these cases.
    • Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism – The brain will not be able to stimulate the testes to produce sperms.
    • Obstructive Causes – Sperms will be produced but will not be able to come in the ejaculate due to obstruction.
    • Idiopathic – When no cause can be found. This is most commonly seen.
    • Maturation defects – Sperm precursors are produced but are not able to mature.
    • Genetic defects – Y micro deletions, Klinefelter’s syndrome etc.


  • Causes of Sperm defects –
    • Obesity
    • Stagnated life style
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol
    • Drug abuse
    • Excessive heat exposure (occupational)
    • Poor nutrition
    • Idiopathic – where no cause can be found


  • Tests for male partner
    • Usually if semen analysis is normal, no further evaluation is done.
    • For minor issues medical treatment is tried for a few months, before advanced tests and treatments.
    • In case of azoospermia, further evaluation is done which includes-
      • Examination
      • Ultrasound
      • Hormonal evaluation
      • FNAC – Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology – Some cells are extracted with the help of a thin needle and they are studied under microscope.
      • If sperms are found on FNAC – ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) is the best technique to have pregnancy. In ICSI, sperms are directly injected inside the eggs with the help of a very advanced machine and microscope.
      • Other advanced treatments are based on requirement.

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